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Sgt Blanthorn

Old navex notes

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I found these within the depths of the private areas of the forums. I suspect NAVEX is probably not taught as often as it was so maybe it will prove interesting to someone. Apologies for the audio quality - I forgot to check it was all working OK beforehand.

 

 

 

Instructor's notes here:

 

 

 

(can get from maps -> end of terrain features in about 50 minutes for a group of 5)

Maps

  Absolute basics
 
    Compass
      What is a compass?
        Points towards the north pole
      What does it do?
        It gives us a way of talking about directions with other people.
          - it's like a global  "left/right"
      
      Two ways to talk about direction using a compass:
         - Points of a compass:
            N, E, S, W; NNE, ENE, SSW, NNW, WNW, etc.
              - Good for quick, rough directions.
            
         - Bearing:
            Degrees:
              - 360 degrees in a circle. 0 degrees = North, 90 degrees = East, 180 Degrees = South, 270 degrees = West.
                  - much finer grained than NESW
            Milliradians:
              - 6400 mils in a circle. We do not use these in the 16AA HOWEVER some optics are marked out with these on the graticle.
                - Either marked as with the vector, or unmarked as with some sniper scopes.
                  - Sometimes marked in 'decades' - i.e. 2 = 20 milliradians.
                - This is used for estimating distances. We may get onto this later this evening.
                
    
    Maps
      What is a map?
        Representation of the ground in front of you
          - It is symbolic - it is not a picture
            - e.g. tube maps, london underground
            - the maps we use are TO SCALE. This means that the distance between objects on the map can be multiplied by a number
                and we can recieve the real distance.
        - The maps we use use the MILITARY GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM.
        - This means that a SIX-FIGURE GRID REFERENCE, i.e. the most zoomed in level, corresponds to 100 x 100 metres.
            
      Co-ordinates
        - the maps are covered in a grid. At the top,bottom,left,right there are numbers on the lines making up the grid.
        
        - this is to make it easy to talk to people about the location of objects on the map.
            Compare this to "talking people on" to objects. Imagine using the clock face method to talk people onto things on the map.
            
        - these lines are called NORTHINGS and EASTINGS.
        
          - A single NORTHING line runs EAST TO WEST - i.e. LEFT TO RIGHT across the map - it is a line which, if you walked parallel to it,
              you would not move any distance NORTH or SOUTH. The NORTHING increases the further NORTH you go.
              
          - EASTINGs run NORTH TO SOUTH - i.e. BOTTOM TO TOP across the map. The EASTING increases the FURTHER EAST you go.
          
        - follow the lines to the LEFT and BOTTOM of the grid square you are looking at to determine the GRID REFERENCE of that grid square.
            - When talking about a GRID REFERENCE, you ALWAYS state the EASTING followed by the NORTHING. You can remember this as "you have to
                walk before you can fly" or "along the corridor and up the stairs" or "on earth as at is in heaven". THERE IS A PAUSE BETWEEN EASTINGS
                  AND NORTHINGS.
                
            - This is a FOUR FIGURE GRID REFERENCE.
                - We make SIX FIGURE GRID REFERENCES by SPLITTING THE GRID SQUARE INTO 10 DIVISIONS ON THE NORTHINGS and EASTINGS.
                    - WE THEN COUNT IN THE SAME DIRECTION AS THE NORTHINGS AND EASTINGS GO,
                JUST LIKE A NUMBER LINE
                  - I find the easiest way to visualise this is to split the grid square in two to determine where the "5" is.
                      and then to split the relevant section in two again to find, e.g. the 2 and 3, and then to guess.
                      
                  - IF YOU ARE JUST OUT BY ONE, IT DOESN'T REALLY MATTER. THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS TO NOT UMM and ERR on the RADIO.
                  
                === EXERCISE ===
                  Make six figure grids of the following 3 things.
                  
                  === BREAK ===
                  
        
        - A quick way to estimate distances on the map is to count the squares covered by a line between the two positions.
          - Any time you need to go across a square diagonally, you should instead count 1.5 squares.
          
          Multiply the number of squares by 100 to get the distance in metres.
            Walking speed in ArmA is approximately 5kph (i.e. 5,000 metres an hour).
              - You can safely round this up to 1 minute per grid square as a 'best-case-scenario' estimate.
              
        - A handy tip to quickly visualise where a position is if you know your GRID REFERENCE and you have the GRID REFERENCE of the position is that
            because NORTHINGS increase as you go NORTH, and EASTINGs increase if you go EAST,
            if the NORTHING group is bigger than your NORTHING group, it is NORTH of you, and
            if the EASTING group is bigger than your EASTING group, it is EAST of you.
            If they are bigger by the roughly the same number, it is NORTH EAST of you etc.
            
     
      TERRAIN FEATURES
        CONTOUR LINES
          - the curvy lines on the map are CONTOUR LINES. These are LINES that are at a CONSTANT HEIGHT above SEA LEVEL.
              - i.e., if you follow a CONTOUR, you will not go UP or DOWN any hills.
              - they are marked at regular intervals (100m, 50m, 10m, 5m, 2m) as shown in the bottom right hand corner of the map.
              
          - On civvie street, people use them to work out how strenous their walk will be...
              ... our main use for them is determining what GROUND will have an unobstructed SIGHT LINE to our position.
              
          - In ARMA, the CONTOUR LINES are NOT directly LABELLED as you may have seen on O/S maps.
              - Instead, SPOT HEIGHTs are labelled.
              - These are the number dotted around the map in small, bold font.
              - They are the height above sea level, in metres, of an isolated peak or trough (dip).
              
          - Thus, we can work out whether we are looking at a PEAK or a TROUGH by looking at SPOT HEIGHTs on either side of the contours
              we are interested in.
              
        TYPES OF TERRAIN FEATURE
          - HILL
              - CLOSED CONTOURS
              - SPOT HEIGHT AT THE TOP
              - GROUND SLOPES DOWN IN ALL DIRECTIONS
          
          - KNOLL
              - A very, very small hill. No more than about 10 metres higher than the ground surrounding it.
              
          - DEPRESSION
              - RARE
                    - because water
                    - found in deserts because no water
              - CLOSED CONTOURS
              - SPOT HEIGHT AT THE BOTTOM
              - GROUND SLOPES UP IN ALL DIRECTIONS
              - 'opposite of a hill'
          
          - VALLEY
            - LEVEL GROUND BORDERED BY SIDES OF HIGHER GROUND.
            - CONTOURS SURROUNDING VALLEY ARE U-SHAPED AWAY FROM VALLEY
                    - Mention why this is - i.e. erosion from water
            
          - RIDGE LINE
            - LEVEL-ISH GROUND IN A LINE
            - 'opposite of a valley'
           
          - DRAW/RE-ENTRANT
            - LIKE A VALLEY BUT WITHOUT THE LEVEL GROUND
            - depression cutting into a hill
            - often feeds into a valley
            - CONTOURS LOOK LIKE Us from TOP of DRAW
            
          - SPUR
            - a short line of higher ground jutting out from a ridge
            - CONTOURS LOOK LIKE Us from BOTTOM OF SPUR
            
         TYPES OF SLOPE
          - CONVEX
            WIDELY SPACED contours at top, CLOSELY spaced at the bottom.
            >> REALLY IMPORTANT AS THE PEAK OF THE SLOPE MAY NOT BE ABLE TO SEE THE BOTTOM OF THE SLOPE <<
              - if we need to assault up a hill, this is what we want
          
          - CONCAVE
            CLOSELY SPACED AT TOP, WIDELY SPACED AT BOTTOM
            >> top, bottom will be able to SEE EACH OTHER <<
              - if we are conducting reconnaisance, this is what we want
            
        053 103
            
              
         === EXERCISE ===
          - Identify the terrain features in the following grids.
          
          === BREAK ===
          
          
ROUTE PLANNING
  - The type of route we take depends on what we want to do. It might be:
      - A covert reconnaisance patrol, where we want to observe an objective.
          - Don't want to be seen while moving, want to get good eyes onto the objective
      - A dominance patrol
          - Want to be seen, want to talk to locals etc.
      - A fighting patrol
          - Don't want to be seen until we want to attack, want good firing positions, defensible RVs.
          
  - General rules when route planning:
      - Choose RVs throughout the route. You need to be able to explain their location without resorting to six figure grid references.
        - Somebody without a GPS might need to find them.
        - RVs need to generally be well defensible, as we will fall back to them if attacked.
        
      - Recognise that the ground has not been designed for you. Your choice of route will be an ugly mess of comprimises. The most important thing
          is that you recognise the weaknesses of your route and communicate them so that they can be negated as best as possible, whether that is
          with obstacle crossings, fire missions or just plain old vigilance.
          
      - Never let the map override your eyes and common sense. If a route turns out to be complete crap as you are walking it, do not be afraid to adjust
          it.
          
  === EXERCISE ===
    - each plan your own route to scout out the objective
    - to provide fire support onto a position
    - for a dominance patrol.
    
  === BREAK ===
    

BONUS ROUND: TRIANGULATION, RANGEFINDERS, ETC.

You've all got RANGEFINDERs.

We will first learn to estimate distance using just the graticle on the range finders. It is marked out in MILLIRADIANs. There is a very simple formula
    for calculating the distance of a target using milliradians. It is:
      (WIDTH/HEIGHT in METRES) / MILLIRADIANS = DISTANCE IN KILOMETRES
    To use this formula, you simply place the base or one side of the target at the centre of your reticle. You then count the number of milliradians it covers.
        For example:
          - A window is one metre wide. It measures 10 milliradians across. How far away is it?
              100 metres.
          - A man is 1.8 metres tall. He measures 1 milliradian tall. How far away is he?
              1 kilometre.
              
    It is quite hard to measure distances with this method.
    
Now, we will use the LASER on the rangefinder.
  - Press and hold R to range the target. It tells you the range in metres.
  - Press and hold TAB to get the bearing to the target. It tells you the bearing in degrees.
 

Now, you all have DAGRs. Press HOME twice to open it full screen. Click "CONNECT TO".

  - Now, when you RANGE targets, it will tell you the GRID of the target on your DAGR.
 
The final part of this training is TRIANGULATION.
You should all have "Map tools".

CONTROLS:
  - Open map
    - Self interaction, "MAP TOOLS"
    - Select the type of tools you want to use
    - You can drag the Roamer around using LMB and rotate it with CTRL+LMB.
    - You can draw lines with ALT+LMB
    - Delete a line with Del.

TRIANGULATION is a method by which you can determine your position with only a map and a compass.
The method is thus:
  - Find two objects, that you can identify on the map, of the order of 90* apart from each other.
      The closer to 90*, the more accurate your position will be.
  - Take the bearing from your position to the first target.
  - In the map, centre the Roamer on your target. Rotate it so that your bearing is chosen.
      - DRAW A LONG LINE GOING THROUGH YOUR TARGET, COMING OUT ON BOTH SIDES.
  - Take a bearing to the second target >>> WITHOUT MOVING AN INCH <<<
      - Repeat the line drawing.
      - You are located where the lines are intersected.
      
=== EXERCISE ===
  - Confiscate GPSs/DAGRs, drive around in jeep.
 

 

 

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